23 Nov 2015


Introversion is a personality type; a spectrum with certain tendencies and traits possessed only by people on that end. Introverts, like extroverts, have strongly developed personalities that attract certain personality types. Basically, none of these two personality types is better or worse than the other. They are simply different, normal and natural. The misinterpretation of introverts is often blamed on the ‘still-water-that-runs-deep’ nature of “introversion.” On the other hand, they tend to understand extroverts more and worry less about them.
Most people use the word “Introvert” offensively, like a polite insult simply because they do not understand for instance, why someone would chose not to be the centre of attention, or not to let loose every emotion and thought that comes to one’s head. They do not understand why someone would rather stay at home than hang out with just anybody, or run after people who do not fulfil them. People rarely understand why one would insist on picking and choosing so carefully whom to let into one’s world, when they others actually need to spend every minute around others just to avoid feeling lonely.
Contrary to wrong perceptions, introverts do not spend their times with closed lips, silent and uncomfortable as most people tend to see them. They do not ignore friends. Rather, they go out, tell stories and share jokes. They like being funny and obnoxious, having good times, being spontaneous and reckless. They like having fun… only that they just do not like having it with all and sundry. They weigh carefully before choosing friends, and differentiate between friends and all-and-sundry.
So, while the extrovert is lonely within and needs to go out and tap from others to be happy and enjoy company, the introvert is busy in the mind and enjoys enough company from within. As such, the introvert tries to avoid losing energy to the extrovert when he or she comes, soaring like a beautiful butterfly in a garden, perching from flower to flower for nectar. By so doing, the introvert is withdrawn.
Many find it difficult to understand what it means to be “a withdrawn or reserved person.” It means “to turn (the mind, thought, etc.) inwards upon itself; to direct (one’s thinking or effort) to that which is internal or spiritual.” This naturally belongs to the introverts who are not simply shy and reticent, but solid enough to be happy alone, internal, reserved, quiet, attentive, withdrawn and with rich imagination and artistic tendencies. This is why they are artists and writers, creators and inventors. Unlike extroverts, introverts comfortably find solace in their own company, content to sit around in their own thoughts instead of keeping friendships they view as empty.
According to study by The Gifted Development Center, 60% “gifted children” are introverts, compared to the 30% of society that’s deemed “gifted.” But introversion is misinterpreted by adults who usually try to correct the “behaviour,” as a personality function they don’t understand. That an introvert, young or old prefers to stay in the room — with his or her thoughts, in his or her own world while others are jumping about making noise — does not mean something is wrong with them. Just because one would rather be alone, does not mean one is problematic. Sometimes it just means he or she does not like you.
Nota Bene:

Introverts hate leaving their own world

 They are usually very spiritual, introspective and reflective, with a tendency to enjoy their own world where they are comfortable, safe and at peace. Studies show that their strength and weakness lie in their tendency to enjoy solitude over interaction. They feel like strangers, usually boring and uncomfortable in the extroverts’ world.

They enjoy their own thoughts more than yours

Studies also show that unlike extroverts, introverts are comfortable with their own “subjective appraisal” and do not seek for outside approval or compliments to be sure of themselves. Their personal control over their innermost desires and certainty about their own standards make them to often appear arrogant and pompous to others.
They have a hard time finding people they like
Given that introverts naturally are mostly happy alone in their own mind, they are choosy and so, often find it difficult to find compatible friends. They prefer people with like minds, not just anybody. Introverts are just the kind of people who would prefer to be around one good mind, rather 100 that appear as empty ones to them.
Edited from Lauren Martin’s “Introverts Aren’t Shy… They’re Just More Complex Than You.”

12 Nov 2015


 Normally, pregnancy ought to be a safe and satisfying experience for the mother, culminating in the delivery of a healthy baby. However, a number of complications arising before, during or after delivery can alter this experience and spell doom for the woman. Some of these will be addressed in this article. 
1. Excessive Bleeding before Labour
This is referred to as antepartum haemorrhage. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality and is defined as any blood loss from the genital tract of a pregnant woman after 28 weeks of gestation but before the onset of labour. The two major reasons why a pregnant woman can bleed at this stage of pregnancy are low-lying placenta (placenta praevia) and premature separation of a normally situated placenta (abruptio placentae). In placenta praevia, the placenta which normally connects mother and baby occupies the lower segment instead of the fundal (upper) portion of the uterus. Consequently, every time the head of the foetus presses on the low-lying placenta, the woman bleeds. In the second condition, abruptio placentae, the placenta is located where it should be. However, as a result of several risk factors such as trauma to the abdomen (from accidents or physical assault) and smoking, the placenta is prematurely separated from the uterus leading to vaginal bleeding. This may lead to the death of both the foetus and the mother. Note that if a woman spots or bleeds per vaginam at any point during pregnancy, it is enough reason to visit her doctor and be properly evaluated. 
2. Excessive Bleeding after Delivery
While it's expected that a woman would normally bleed immediately after delivery, any blood loss in excess of 500ml following vaginal delivery should never be taken lightly. It's referred to as postpartum haemorrhage and is currently the leading reason why many women die from childbirth in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage can occur as a result of poorly contracted uterus (uterine atony), retained products of conception such as placenta tissue, tears or lacerations within the genital tract and less often, bleeding disorders in the mother. Unfortunately, most of these cases can be traced to poorly managed labour by unskilled traditional birth attendants many of whom do not recognise their limits and often delay in referring the woman when things get out of hand. Furthermore, it is rather disheartening that less than 46% of deliveries in developing countries like Nigeria are conducted by skilled birth attendants including trained midwives and doctors. Such simple practices as timely administration of oxytocics, rub-up contractions and complete evacuation of retained products can go a long way in stemming the tides of postpartum bleeding. 
3. Prolonged Obstructed Labour
When labour becomes prolonged and obstructed, it simply means it is no longer progressing as expected, necessitating timely intervention. However, many of the traditional birth attendants patronised by some of our women hardly ever recognise the signs and symptoms of poor progress in labour. By the time they do so and refer, it's often too late. Prolonged obstructed labour is especially common in teenage pregnancies whose pelvic size is rather too small to allow passage of the foetal head, a condition described as cephalopelvic disproportion. Cephalopelvic disproportion is also common among women with contracted pelvis due to previous accidents involving the pelvis and diabetic mothers who end up with very big babies (macrosomia) that cannot pass through their pelvis. Sometimes, it's just a full bladder that is preventing the baby's head from descending and as soon as the bladder is emptied, foetal descent progresses normally. Typically, a woman with obstructed labour may have been in the active phase of labour for over 12 hours and is already exhausted, agitated and dehydrated. The urine may be concentrated and the vulva edematous ('tomato' vulva). Once a diagnosis of obstructed labour is made, the next option is to prepare the woman for an emergency caesarean section to forestall complications like foetal and/or maternal death, vesicovaginal fistulas and obstetric palsy among others. 
4. Infections
It's also quite common for women to die as a result of infections in the post-delivery period. This is referred to as puerpereal sepsis. It can occur when delivery (vaginal or caesarean) is conducted in unhygienic conditions or when there are infected retained products of conception in the mother. Usually, the woman may start experiencing continuous high-grade fever, abdominal pain with foul-smelling vaginal discharge. If the woman delivered by caesarean section, the surgical site may break down with associated discharge of foul-smelling pus. If aggressive treatment with effective antibiotics is not commenced, the woman may die from complications such as septic shock or disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC).
5. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Preeclampsia-eclampsia is a major cause of death among pregnant women. Some pregnant mothers had been hypertensive before pregnancy while in others, the hypertension is pregnancy-induced i.e. they are diagnosed as hypertensive for the first time during pregnancy. Whichever is the case, any pregnant woman with persistently elevated blood pressure needs to have her urine tested for protein. If the urine contains significant quantities of protein, she has pre-eclampsia which must be promptly managed to forestall convulsions as a result of eclampsia, a lethal condition that is associated with significant maternal mortality before, during and after childbirth. Safe antihypertensives and prophylactic magnesium sulphate are usually employed to stop the progression of pre-eclampsia to eclampsia. However, hypertension can only be promptly detected and managed in a pregnant woman who registers for antenatal care at a hospital and keeps her clinic appointments.